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The attacks can be easily launched but cannot be defended against by traditional cryptographic approaches. IMDs are widely used to treat chronic diseases. Many IMDs can communicate wirelessly with an outside programmer reader. However, wireless access also introduces security concerns. A number of research groups have studied IMD security issues when the patient is in a non-emergency situation. In this chapter, we present a light-weight secure access control scheme for IMDs during emergencies. We also make one contribution in human iris verification: we show that it is possible to perform iris verification by comparing partial iris data rather than using iris data of an entire eye.
This significantly reduces the overhead of iris verification, which is critical for resource-limited IMDs. We evaluate the performance of our schemes by using real iris data sets. Our experimental results show that the secure access control scheme is very effective and has small overhead hence feasible for IMDs.
A medical device hijack also called medjack is a type of cyber attack.
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The weakness they target are the medical devices of a hospital. This was covered extensively in the press in and in Medical device hijacking received additional attention in This was both a function of an increase in identified attacks globally and research released early in the year.
Further, it has the ability to hide from sandboxes and other defense tools until it is in a safe non- VM environment. Debate ensued between various medical device suppliers, hospital executives in the audience and some of the vendors over ownership of the financial responsibility to remediate the massive installed base of vulnerable medical device equipment.
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Mandatory legislation as part of new national cyber security policy may be required to address the threat of medical device hijacking, other sophisticated attacker tools that are used in hospitals, and the new variants of ransomware which seem targeted to hospitals. In such a cyberattack the attacker places malware within the networks through a variety of methods malware-laden website, targeted email, infected USB stick, socially engineered access, etc.
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Most of the time existing cyber defenses clear the attacker tools from standard serves and IT workstations IT endpoints but the cyber defense software cannot access the embedded processors within medical devices. Most of the embedded operating systems within medical devices are running on Microsoft Windows 7 and Windows XP. The security in these operating systems is no longer supported. So they are relatively easy targets in which to establish attacker tools.
Inside of these medical devices, the cyber attacker now finds safe harbor in which to establish a backdoor command and control. Since medical devices are FDA certified, hospital and cybersecurity team personnel cannot access the internal software without perhaps incurring legal liability, impacting the operation of the device or violating the certification.
Given this open access, once the medical devices are penetrated, the attacker is free to move laterally to discover targeted resources such as patient data, which is then quietly identified and exfiltrated.
Virtually any medical device can be impacted by this attack. In one of the earliest documented examples testing identified malware tools in a blood gas analyzer, magnetic resonance imaging MRI system, computerized tomogram CT scan, and x-ray machines.
In case studies became available that showed attacker presence also in the centralized PACS imaging systems which are vital and important to hospital operations. In August , representatives from IBM demonstrated how an infected USB device can be used to identify the serial numbers of devices within a close range and facilitate fatal dosage injections to patients with an insulin pump in the annual BlackHat conference.
This attack primarily centers on the largest 6, hospitals on a global basis.
Healthcare data has the highest value of any stolen identity data, and given the weakness in the security infrastructure within the hospitals, this creates an accessible and highly valuable target for cyber thieves. Besides hospitals, this can impact large physician practices such as accountable care organizations ACOs and Independent Physician Associations IPAs , skilled nursing facilities SNFs both for acute care and long term care, surgical centers and diagnostic laboratories.
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